Category: Technologies

Technologies

Java vs C#

In the online battles of Java vs C#, millions of man-hours were wasted and billions of nerve cells on each side were destroyed. While this post could be the most provocative on our blog and the most meaningless at the same time, let’s analyze each of these languages and find the areas where each of them ​​will be in the right place.

 

If we discard the “holy war” and take a sober look at both languages, we will see they are like brothers. Of course, not twins but they still have the same roots, because in one way or another both of them originated from C and C++. If you take a look at them with the eyes of a developer, you will see that C# and Java have a very similar structure. Each of them is a strictly-typed language, each of them is the language of OOP and many of their functions derive from C++ syntax.

 

Java appeared long before C# and managed to become a global leader in several areas. Particularly, Java has been the most chosen language for enterprise-products for many years. When C# appeared in the first half of the 2000s, at first it did not look like a worthy competitor but quickly gained its place under the sun, which is not very surprising since for its creation Microsoft utilized many years of their experience with Java. In its first decade, C# was far ahead of Java with its regular and frequent releases of updates and new features. Additionally, thanks to the support of Microsoft, the inclusion of an excellent development environment and many libraries, it becomes clear why C# has become one of the industry standards in less than a decade. However, as the time kept flying, its advantages quickly turned into disadvantages – too frequent updates and additions of new features had compromised the sequence of development and the simplicity of the language. On the other hand, C#-fans are the first ones who receive new features. C# gradually gained its market share, and even in the area whereas it seemed Java could not have competitors. Of course, we are talking about backend-development, but it is also worth to mention that C# had also become one of the standards for developing desktop applications for Windows. During Microsoft’s development of its own Windows mobile platform, C# had a chance to compete with Java in the market for developing applications for mobile operating systems, but – fortunately, or not – Windows Mobile project was closed.

 

At the same time, Oracle chose a different path of development – updates of Java were rare. This caused a lot of reproaches thrown at them but allowed them to save backward compatibility from version to version, which is a huge plus especially for enterprise products, where the systems are often being built and developed for decades. Also, a consistent approach to development allowed Java’s ecosystem to maintain a simple and understandable syntax. This allowed not to complicate the work with both new and old code. Additionally and to the delight of Java fans, Oracle has accelerated the development and releases of new versions. Nowadays, Java keeps up with modern trends herewith maintaining succession and backward compatibility.

 

What is often called one of the main differences between Java and C#, is that Java is cross-platform. Of course, there is also a Mono project that allows you to write cross-platform applications in C#, but for such types of work, Java is still beyond the reach of its competitors.

 

C# with its simple syntax is at first way simpler and it seems that it allows you to do many things easier and faster than Java, but surprisingly, writing high-quality code in C# requires a higher qualification of the programmer due to need of a clear understanding of how all the features work. At the same time, Java minimizes the number of errors and allows you to work with already written code as efficiently and fast as possible, thanks to more complex and orderly syntax. Comparing the syntax of Java and C#, one might say: “It seems as if Java was built to keep a developer from shooting himself in the foot, while in case of C# it seems as if it was built to give the developer a gun but leave the safety switch turned on”. I find it unexpectedly accurate, but I’d add only one thing – the fuse is useless if you don’t know how to use it.

 

If we make a deep comparison of Java and C#, diving into the depth of all their technical aspects, we see that they have one thing in common – they are great for developing backend-applications, including complex enterprise systems. At the same time, several differences can have a major impact on stack selection. First of all, it’s an infrastructure that is already working – if a company built its infrastructure based on Windows servers, C# will be an excellent choice, because it was created by Microsoft and is well optimized for Windows. At the same time, Java would be ideal for an open-source ecosystem based on Unix, Linux, or other platforms outside of Microsoft.

 

In conclusion, I want to add one simple but often forgotten truth – “The success of every particular project doesn’t depend just on the programming language. Software quality is most affected by the quality of developers themselves, not the programming language”

Technologies

What to write in Java? Project types that java fits best

When the idea for any software is born – the first question that arises for an entrepreneur is what technologies to use?
The right answer to this question can be the key factor in the future both for the project and the business as a whole.
There are many programming languages and making the right decision can be very difficult. In this post, we will look at one of the most popular programming languages ​​in the world and the advantages of using it for different types of projects. Of course, it’s Java. Java was created over 25 years ago and has since then been confidently holding its place on the top of software’s Olympus.

Java code sampleOne of the main advantages of applications written on Java is their cross-platforming. Java was created with the idea of WORA – Write Once, Run Anywhere, and an excellent implementation of this principle determined its success. Your software will work equally efficiently anytime and anywhere – on Windows, Linux or UNIX-based servers. This allows you to quickly respond to market changes, be flexible and make you independent of the monopolist of the proprietary server OS market. You can deploy the infrastructure in any place you need as quickly as possible and almost without limitations. If the project is working with cloud solutions, Java is the best choice too, as all cloud solutions have SDKs that are very well documented for Java.

The second advantage comes from the properties of the language type, which in the case of Java is the strict typing. On one hand, it complicates writing of the code a bit and makes the development process a little longer in comparison to scripting languages. On the other hand, it’s your trump card, because software written in Java will always be easy for any programmer to read, understand and take over its development. By choosing Java to create your software, you get minimal expenses for maintaining the system and the biggest opportunities for modification in comparison with most of the other languages.
In the course of its long history, Java got enriched myriads of libraries and frameworks that allow you to create complicated, scalable and high-performance systems in the shortest possible time.

And the main question – what type of projects is Java ideal for?

There were periods when Java was being successfully used as a language for writing applets and desktop applications. However, it has become a true rockstar in the field of developing web-based back-end solutions, where it still keeps a leading position.

Today, many experts unofficially call Java a “kingmaker” in the world of an enterprise solution, because it is used everywhere. In almost every complex system, you will find Java. Java systems are easily scalable in alignment with business needs. The power and flexibility of Java allows you to support and develop your products over many, many years.

Java is also a great choice for all types of enterprise solutions like ERP, CRM, BPM, manufacturing process control, security systems or financial solutions. For many years, both large corporations and smaller businesses choose Java as the foundation for the back-end of their solutions, because when the cost of an error or a simple downtime can be millions of dollars, only the best, most tested and reliable solutions are used. Of course, there is always the temptation to write a project as quickly as possible, for example using popular scripting languages ​​such as PHP. But, after a short period of time, there is a risk that the cost of maintaining the efficiency of your product goes through the roof and the only way to save the situation is to create the platform from scratch, using strict typing languages as Java or .NET. Moreover, any malfunction in the work of complex systems is a huge reputation loss for the company, which can “bury” the business. Why pay twice and risk everything?

Choosing Java for your product you get:
1. Great scalability (are you planning your business to grow?)
2. Flexibility in further development and support
3. Maximum reliability and system’s resilience
4. The possibility of simple integrations with any other systems including IoT.
5. A myriad of partners for support and development – Java community is one of the biggest in the world

Are you making a breakthrough in the IoT?

ServersAgain, Java will be the best choice, because 30 years ago it was created as a language for applications for PDA devices (Personal Digital Assistant), the ancestors of modern smartphones. Later, over the next decade, Java evolved into a more universal platform, since it turned out that this language is great for creating applications that work on modern devices. Today, Java is used in billions of devices from set-top boxes and printers to sophisticated industrial security devices. One of its main advantages in this area is that the applications written in Java are not draining the device resources that much. It’s a matter of fact, that in the 90’s and at the beginning of 21st century, the devices had a very limited amount of RAM and small computing power – many times smaller than nowadays. Therefore, Java was created specifically for the use within this resource-intensive environment, that requires functional applications with minimal processing power. This admirable feature has been preserved to this day, thanks to which Java-based applications for IoT can have very modest system requirements, using minimal computer resources and memory.

The modern world has become mobile, most people use only smartphones or tablets in everyday life. And in this mobile world, Java again plays a decisive role. About 80 percent of smartphones and tablets in the world run on Android, which is Java-based as well. You can write any application in Java for this OS, but the most important thing is that Java is ideal for the server-side, as it allows you to easily and quickly collect and process data received from any mobile device.

In fact, if we evaluate the properties of Java and its ecosystem, we can conclude that in general it is a great solution for any complex project, especially if you plan on its growth and long-term development. By choosing Java, you get reliable high-performance and easily scalable software that will become the driver of the successful development of your business.

Technologies / Web development

Java vs PHP

A battle more epic than Helm’s Deep siege.

Since the beginning of time, people have always been fighting because of various reasons and using various weapons. For food, for territory, for lands, gods, women, politics and many other reasons, using rocks, bows, swords, guns, artillery and many other weapons.

Fortunately, nowadays most of the battles we take part in are only intellectual and with much less harmful means. We can battle over who makes the dishwashing, what to watch on tv, or… what programming language to choose. The last one has actually gone out of control on 21st century to become a field of a heavy battles between the developers of each technology, with any means necessary.

That is why, it’s a great topic to elaborate on, especially that just as in majority of such intellectual conflicts, it is hard to get a straight answer on what is better. Actually, the best answer to this question in the answer I absolutely hate: IT DEPENDS.

To not leave you with such an inaccurate answer, I’ve let myself to make a short comparison that could help you to understand what programming language will be best for the backend of your project.

Programming vs. Scripting

Basically, the first thing to start with is the main difference – Java is a general-purpose programming language while PHP is a scripting language designed for web (PHP initially stood for “Personal Home Page”). That’s great, but what does it actually mean? In a short word, Java applications are compiled into so called “byte code” and run in a virtual machine on any platform that supports java, while code written in PHP is by default interpreted at runtime by web servers. Java’s general purpose means that you can develop an application of any complexity, it might or might not be related to web.

Again, great, but how does that affect the application? Generally, the programs that are compiled very often run faster than code that has to be interpreted by an interpreter first (interpreter is a PHP environment installed on the server in this case). What is more, many of errors related to syntax are detected at the compilation stage, like e.g. invalid calls.

Still, obviously the technology is going forward and so are the solutions, so let’s take a deeper look at what are the advantages and disadvantages of Java and scripting languages.

Java

Advantages:

  • Being world’s most popular programming language, Java has developed a large number of libraries. Thanks to that, we can use a lot of existing libraries instead of spending time on writing a custom code for typical operations.
  • Java is time-proven – have always been there and will probably always be there, while scripting languages have fashion-based ups and downs dependable of their popularity.
  • J2EE, one of the most popular Java platforms, is designed for enterprise projects, while scripting languages are designed rather for smaller applications.
  • Multithreading – out of all programming languages, Java has one of the best developed solutions for multithreading, which makes it easily handling multiple threads.
  • In Java, a lot of errors are detected at compilation time.
  • Change requests costs less in comparison to scripting languages, due to strong typing instead of dynamic. This means that when you need to change something, the compiler will detect if it is not compatible with code dependant on it and therefore throw an error.
  • Easier debugging due to the same reason as mentioned above as well as thanks to architecture of JVM, which means cheapest support.
  • Java is a general-purpose programming language, while PHP was originally designed as a web language. This “web” origin sometimes lead to tricky architecture or require a mix of multiple languages in order to implement something, which is not directly related to web.

Disadvantages:

  • In general, Java requires higher qualified developers. Sometimes you need a few more code lines  than in PHP to implement something simple.
  • Because of the above, if your project is not a rocket-science but rather a simple application consisting of popular features, the cost of its development will be a bit higher when using Java.
  • Requirements for hardware are usually a little bit higher.

PHP

Advantages:

  • Developer can usually write the code faster, which affects project cost on first stage – development of MVP is a bit cheaper, which could be a good solution if you are thinking about testing your idea.
  • Lower requirements to the server, especially in terms of memory.
  • Is easier to learn by the developers and therefore requires less experience with coding from developers to work effectively with it.
  • Large number of libraries for various purposes.
  • Cheaper hosting.

Disadvantages:

  • Higher cost of changes due to dynamic typing. That is because there is a bigger chance to break existing functionalities, as dependencies and typing are not checked by compiler.
  • Costs of maintenance grow exponentially with project size.
  • Less opportunities of adding more complicated functions (e.g. complicated mathematical algorithms).
  • More problematic in terms of backward compatibility.

Conclusion

As you can see, it is not straightforward at all whether Java is better than PHP, or the other way around. Both languages have their pros & cons as well as a number of libraries that can reduce the cost of work and therefore a question of which language should you use is rather dependable on the type of system that you want to build.

PHP was designed to simplify the life of web developers, and it successfully meets its purpose. You can develop and deploy web application within few minutes. But as usual, this simplification has its downsides, in particular, when you need to develop something not so obvious or something tricky – it becomes much more complicated than in java.

Usually, using a scripting language becomes a success-blocker when the project evolves and grows. Big projects that were created with scripting languages require much more effort to manage and maintain. Sometimes at certain stage there is a need to add something tricky to the project, for which scripting language is not enough. So project owners have a choice either to have a mix of languages or to re-write the project from scratch using another language, which is an extremely painful business decision. Still, if you are building a small or medium-sized application, PHP may surely be the right choice.

So, what language will you choose for your project? If you are still not sure, you can type us a message. Our consultant will be happy to hear about your idea and advise the best stack.